K-Science.info

K-Science.info

Vocabulary:


Matter
-Anything that takes up space and has mass.

Solid -One of the four states of matter. It is characterized by structural rigidity and resistance to changes of shape or volume.

Liquid-One of the four states of matter with a definite volume but no fixed shape.

Gas -One of the four states of matter. This state of matter is found between the liquid and plasma states.

Plasma -One of the four states of matter made up of ionized gas.

Physical Change -A change in the state of matter but the overall composition of the substance is the same ( Chopping wood).

Chemical Change -A new substance is formed through a change (Cooking eggs).

Intensive Property-Property that is independent of quantity.

Extensive Property -Property that is dependent on quantity.

Homogenous Mixture- Mixture that has the same uniform appearance and composition throughout.

Heterogenous Mixture- Mixture that composes of components that aren't uniform or they have localized regions that all have different properties.

Nucleus -The central region of the atom where protons and neutrons are found.

Atomic Number-The number of protons in an atom. This defines an element.

Element Symbol-The abbreviation used to identify an element.

Mass Number -The number of protons + average number of neutrons. The number of neutrons can vary in an atom.

Isotope -Two or more of the same element that contain equal numbers of protons but different numbers of neutrons.

Valence Electrons -The number of electrons in the outer shell of an atom.

Column-Grouping of like elements based on valence electrons. All have similar properties.

Row/Period -Grouping of elements with the same level of electron shell.

Alkali Metals- All have a charge of +1. Highly reactive metals. Explosive in water.

Alkaline Earth Metals- All have a charge of +2. Reactive with halogens. Similar boiling and melting points.

Halogens- All have a charge of -1. Name means “salt producing”. When halogens react with metals they produce a wide range of salts.

Noble Gasses- All have a charge of 0. All odorless, colorless, monatomic gases with very low chemical reactivity.

Metals- Found on the left side of the periodic table. Lose electrons to form cations or positively charged particles.

Nonmetals- Found on the right side of the periodic table. Generally, gain electrons to form anions.

Metalloids- Have properties of both metals and nonmetals.

Electronegativity- A measure of the tendency of an atom to attract a bonding pair of electrons.

Ionization Energy- The quantity of energy that an isolated, gaseous atom in the ground electronic state must absorb to discharge an electron, resulting in a cation.

Electron Configuration- The distribution of electrons of an atom or molecule in atomic or molecular orbitals.

Covalent- Bonding where electrons between both elements in bond are shared. (Non-metal/ Non-metal)

Ionic- Bonding where electrons are stolen by one element and given up by another. (No sharing) (Non-metal/ metal)

Polar-Covalent Bond- Unequal sharing of electrons (covalent bond).

Nonpolar- Covalent Bond- Equal sharing of electrons (covalent bond).

Stoichiometry-Involves the ratios of products and reactants in mole to mole ratios.

Solute-Substance being dissolved.

Solution-Substance doing the dissolving.

Redox Reaction- Reaction where electrons are transferred.

Oxidation- The loss of electrons.

Reduction-The gain of electrons.

Fission-The splitting of an atomic nuclei releasing energy.

Fusion-The merging of two atomic nuclei into one releasing energy.