Matter-Anything that takes up space and has mass.
Solid -One of the four states of matter. It is characterized by structural rigidity and resistance to changes of shape or volume.
Liquid-One of the four states of matter with a definite volume but no fixed shape.
Gas -One of the four states of matter. This state of matter is found between the liquid and plasma states.
Plasma -One of the four states of matter made up of ionized gas.
Physical Change -A change in the state of matter but the overall composition of the substance is the same ( Chopping wood).
Chemical Change -A new substance is formed through a change (Cooking eggs).
Intensive Property-Property that is independent of quantity.
Extensive Property -Property that is dependent on quantity.
Homogenous Mixture- Mixture that has the same uniform appearance and composition throughout.
Heterogenous Mixture- Mixture that composes of components that aren't uniform or they have localized regions that all have different properties.
Nucleus -The central region of the atom where protons and neutrons are found.
Atomic Number-The number of protons in an atom. This defines an element.
Element Symbol-The abbreviation used to identify an element.
Mass Number -The number of protons + average number of neutrons. The number of neutrons can vary in an atom.
Isotope -Two or more of the same element that contain equal numbers of protons but different numbers of neutrons.
Valence Electrons -The number of electrons in the outer shell of an atom.
Column-Grouping of like elements based on valence electrons. All have similar properties.
Row/Period -Grouping of elements with the same level of electron shell.
Alkali Metals- All have a charge of +1. Highly reactive metals. Explosive in water.
Alkaline Earth Metals- All have a charge of +2. Reactive with halogens. Similar boiling and melting points.
Halogens- All have a charge of -1. Name means “salt producing”. When halogens react with metals they produce a wide range of salts.
Noble Gasses- All have a charge of 0. All odorless, colorless, monatomic gases with very low chemical reactivity.
Metals- Found on the left side of the periodic table. Lose electrons to form cations or positively charged particles.
Nonmetals- Found on the right side of the periodic table. Generally, gain electrons to form anions.
Metalloids- Have properties of both metals and nonmetals.
Electronegativity- A measure of the tendency of an atom to attract a bonding pair of electrons.
Ionization Energy- The quantity of energy that an isolated, gaseous atom in the ground electronic state must absorb to discharge an electron, resulting in a cation.
Electron Configuration- The distribution of electrons of an atom or molecule in atomic or molecular orbitals.
Covalent- Bonding where electrons between both elements in bond are shared. (Non-metal/ Non-metal)
Ionic- Bonding where electrons are stolen by one element and given up by another. (No sharing) (Non-metal/ metal)
Polar-Covalent Bond- Unequal sharing of electrons (covalent bond).
Nonpolar- Covalent Bond- Equal sharing of electrons (covalent bond).
Stoichiometry-Involves the ratios of products and reactants in mole to mole ratios.
Solute-Substance being dissolved.
Solution-Substance doing the dissolving.
Redox Reaction- Reaction where electrons are transferred.
Oxidation- The loss of electrons.
Reduction-The gain of electrons.
Fission-The splitting of an atomic nuclei releasing energy.
Fusion-The merging of two atomic nuclei into one releasing energy.